Hardware/RTC

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General

Just like the Wii and the GameCube, the Wii U contains a dedicated chip for the Real-Time Clock (RTC). The MX23L0002 is a custom chip that encompasses the RTC and a small SRAM bank. While the chip still sits on the EXI bus (channel 0, device 1) it no longer contains the GameCube font sets, as this data is now handled on the software side.

Communication

To access the RTC on the Wii U you must:

- Enable the EXI through HW_AIP_PROT;
- Initialize the EXI channels;
- Register device 1 (RTC) on EXI channel 0 with default frequency;
- To read from the RTC:
    -> EXI immediate write the RTC offset (see below);
    -> EXI immediate read the result;
- To write to the RTC:
    -> EXI immediate write the RTC offset (see below) ORed with flag 0x80000000;
    -> EXI immediate write the desired value;
- Reset the EXI channel.

RTC offsets

The RTC exposes a few control registers and SRAM memory access in the form of EXI offsets, which can be accessed to read and write 32-bit values or perform DMA operations (in the case of SRAM).

Name Offset Description
RTC_COUNTER 0x20000000 Contains the counting time intervals in seconds
RTC_SRAM 0x20000100 Battery backed memory
The SRAM has a total size of 64 bytes, starting at offset 0x20000100 and ending at offset 0x20001000.
Therefore, each word is located at (0x20000100 + 0x100 * i) with (i < 0x10).
On Wii U mode (recent firmware versions only), this memory is used to store IOSU kernel panic strings.
RTC_SNAPSHOT 0x20400000 Contains a snapshot of RTC_COUNTER (taken upon power on?)
ONTMR_SET 0x21000000 Contains the value set for the ON timer
The value set here is masked with 0x3FFFFFFF and represents time intervals in seconds.
The following flags can be set on the value's upper bits:
0x80000000 (ONTMR_EN): Enable/disable the ON timer.
0x40000000 (PONTMR_DTCT): Unknown.
OFFTMR_SET 0x21000100 Contains the value set for the OFF timer
The value set here is masked with 0x3FFFFFFF and represents time intervals in seconds.
The following flags can be set on the value's upper bits:
0x80000000 (OFFTMR_EN): Enable/disable the OFF timer.
0x40000000 (POFFTMR_DTCT): Unknown.
RTC_UNK0 0x21000400 Always 0x03030303 after power on (PLL?)
RTC_UNK1 0x21000500 Always 0x03030303 after power on (PLL?)
RTC_UNK2 0x21000600 Always 0x03030303 after power on (PLL?)
RTC_UNK3 0x21000700 Always 0x03030303 after power on (PLL?)
RTC_CONTROL0 0x21000C00 RTC control register 0
The last byte stored here (mask == 0x000000FF) is always RTC_REVISION (0x00 or 0x01).
The following flags can be set here:
0x04000000 (POFFLG_FPOFF): Set upon a forced power off.
0x02000000 (POFFLG_4S): Set upon a 4 second power button press.
0x01000000 (POFFLG_TMR): Set upon a OFF timer power off.
0x00010000 (PONLG_TMR): Set upon a ON timer power on.
0x00020000 (PONFLG_SYS): Set upon a system power event.
0x00000800 (UNSTBL_PWR): Unknown. boot0 checks this before launching a recovery boot1 image.
0x00000200 (LOW_BATT): Set when the CMOS battery is worn off.
0x00000100 (CANARY): Unknown. Likely set on factory for testing.
RTC_CONTROL1 0x21000D00 RTC control register 1
The following flags can be set here:
0x00010000 (POFF_EXE): Setting this flag executes a power off event.
0x00000400 (DEVPWR_EN or DEVPWR_SYNC): If set, this flag is referred to as DEVPWR_EN (device power enabled?).
                                       If not set, this flag is referred to as DEVPWR_SYNC (device power sync?).
0x00000100 (SLEEP_EN): Setting this flag puts the RTC in sleep mode (used in standby mode).
0x00000008 (FPOFF_MODE): This flag defines the forced power off event mode.
0x00000004 (CLKOUT_EN): This flag enables/disables the CLKOUT pin.
0x00000001 (4COUNT_EN): This flag enables/disables the 4 second power button press functionality.